Principles of Lightning and Surge Protection
Lightning strokes, which add up to 200 kA or 300 kV, cause hazards towards the equipment or location, so lightning protection is crucial for operation.
Let's start with the initial note in regards to what is lightning and why lightning protection is really important. The basic phenomenon behind lightning is charges accumulated from the cloud and the earth are equal and opposite. This forms a non-uniform potential gradient surface up. If the gradient is greater compared to the potential with the surface, the breakdown occurs as well as a "streamer" flows from the cloud on the earth.
An immediate stroke takes place when the lightning hits the ability systems directly how the immense potential can cause destruction of the equipment or facility. As opposed, an indirect stroke is carried out in the lightning discharges inside the proximity in the power line or from electrostatic discharge around the conductor due to charged clouds.
The main power system elements requiring lightning protection are power feeds, security systems, telephone lines, data and control systems and RF cables.
Ways of Lightning Protection. The rolling sphere way is utilized for identifying the actual keeping the lightning and surge protection devices near the equipment under operation.
Protection with the power line against direct strokes is via a ground wire or protector tube. The former produces electrostatic screening, that's suffering from the capacitances of the cloud to line as well as the line to ground. Rogues forms an arc between the electrodes, causing gas deionisation.
Rooftop/Frame Protection. It can be interesting to remember that this building and rooftop frame or cladding is preferably metal than insulation type.
Installing a finial near the top of the power tower needs to have a nominal amount distance of merely one.5 m above the highest antenna or lights. This type of rooftop or building frame is made from reinforced steel for defense purpose.
Wooden towers without downconductors may cause a hearth hazard, because they route the incoming charges to ground. In principal, for non-metallic roofs, proper downconductors ought to be installed on the appropriate location and height.
Device Protection. Antenna lightning protection emerges through spark gap, the gas discharge tube and quad-wavelength shorted stub. The initial method uses ball points to ensure if your strike occurs, high potential forms with shod and non-shod and also the ground. The next method causes gas deionisation through arc formation relating to the electrodes. The past method utilizes a coax transmission line throughout the transmission line in order that system bandwidth is narrow.
A lightning arrester can be a device offering lightning protection by regulating spark gaps. The device classification may range from rod gap, horn gap and valve type to metal oxide lightning arresters.
Earthing and Bonding Solutions. Now let's talk of how earthing and bonding solutions for lightning protection should be afforded. Design for earth rods, terminals or clamps should be you might say to route the incoming transients to earth to minimise step and touch potentials. The geometric measurements chosen should adhere to the IEEE and NFPA standards. Any earthing system must have proper bonding, as ground potential rise can't be compensated. Again, the volume of interconnects and spacing needs to be designed per the lightning standards.
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